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|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page|
2023 day arrangement
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force (soldiers pictured) departed Albany, Western Australia.
- 1959 – After being struck in the face with a hockey puck, Jacques Plante played the rest of the game wearing a face mask, now mandatory equipment for goaltenders in ice hockey.
- 1959 – Dominique Mbonyumutwa, one of the few Hutu sub-chiefs in colonial Rwanda, was attacked by Tutsi activists, precipitating the Rwandan Revolution.
- 1972 – Elvis on Tour, a concert film that documented Elvis Presley's tour throughout the United States, opened.
- 1917 – The British government issued the Balfour Declaration in support of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, then an Ottoman region with a small Jewish minority.
- 1997 – Tropical Storm Linda made landfall in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, causing more than 3,000 deaths.
- 2000 – Aboard Expedition 1, American astronaut William Shepherd and Russian cosmonauts Sergei Krikalev and Yuri Gidzenko became the first resident crew to arrive at the International Space Station.
- 2008 – At the season-ending Brazilian Grand Prix, Lewis Hamilton (pictured) overtook Timo Glock in the final corners of the race to become World Drivers' Champion by one point.
- 1880 – The current melody of Kimigayo, the national anthem of Japan, was adopted.
- 1881 – Indigenous Mapuche began an uprising against the occupation of Araucanía by Chile.
- 1942 – World War II: U.S. Marines and U.S. Army forces began an attempt to encircle and destroy a regiment of Imperial Japanese Army troops on Guadalcanal.
- 1943 – The Holocaust: The largest massacre of Jews by German forces began at Majdanek concentration camp (execution trenches pictured).
- 1954 – The first film featuring the giant monster known as Godzilla was released nationwide in Japan.
- 1912 – The keel of USS Nevada was laid down, beginning construction on the United States Navy's first "super-dreadnought".
- 1938 – The Hlinka Guard and Slovakian police began the deportation of several thousand Jews from the country.
- 1970 – Authorities in California discovered a 13-year-old feral child, pseudonymously known as Genie, who had spent nearly her entire life in social isolation.
- 2008 – Barack Obama (pictured) became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.
- 1605 – The arrest of Guy Fawkes, found during a search of the Palace of Westminster, foiled the Gunpowder Plot, which planned to blow up the House of Lords.
- 1757 – Seven Years' War: Prussian forces led by Frederick the Great defeated the allied French and Habsburg armies at the Battle of Rossbach.
- 1950 – Korean War: The 27th British Commonwealth Brigade succeeded in preventing a Chinese breakthrough at the Battle of Pakchon.
- 2009 – U.S. Army major Nidal Hasan went on a shooting rampage at Fort Hood, Texas, the worst shooting ever to take place on an American military base, killing 13.
- 2013 – The Indian Space Research Organisation launched the Mars Orbiter Mission (depicted), the nation's first interplanetary probe.
- 1856 – The first story from the collection Scenes of Clerical Life by the English author George Eliot (pictured) was submitted for publication.
- 1868 – Red Cloud, a Native American leader of the Oglala Lakota tribe, signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie, ending Red Cloud's War and establishing the Great Sioux Reservation.
- 1944 – The B Reactor at the Hanford Site in the U.S. state of Washington began producing plutonium, with the facility later going on to create more for nearly the entire American nuclear arsenal.
- 2016 – Syrian civil war: The Syrian Democratic Forces launched a successful military campaign to isolate and eventually capture Raqqa, the Islamic State's capital.
- 1811 – Tecumseh's War: American forces led by William Henry Harrison defeated the forces of Shawnee leader Tecumseh's growing confederation at the Battle of Tippecanoe near present-day Battle Ground, Indiana.
- 1837 – American abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy was murdered by a pro-slavery mob in Alton, Illinois, during an attack to destroy his printing press and abolitionist materials.
- 1917 – World War I: British forces captured Gaza following the retreat of the Ottoman garrison.
- 1987 – Singapore's first Mass Rapid Transit line opened (train pictured), with train services running between Yio Chu Kang and Toa Payoh.
- 1991 – Professional basketball player Magic Johnson announced his retirement from the game due to HIV infection.
- 960 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Having been the target of many raids by the Emirate of Aleppo, Byzantine forces led by Leo Phokas the Younger ambushed the Hamdanids and annihilated their army.
- 1291 – A law was passed that confined most of Venice's glassmaking industry to nearby Murano.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor (portrait shown), the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China.
- 1965 – Vietnam War: In the Battle of Gang Toi, one of the earliest battles between the two sides, Viet Cong forces repelled an Australian attack.
- 1888 – Mary Jane Kelly, widely believed to be the fifth and final victim of the notorious unidentified serial killer Jack the Ripper, was murdered in London.
- 1914 – World War I: Off the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, the Australian light cruiser Sydney sank Emden, the last active German warship in the Indian Ocean.
- 1918 – The government of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic adopted a tricolour national flag (pictured) that remains in use today with slight modifications by the present-day Republic of Azerbaijan.
- 2016 – A tram derailment in Croydon, London, killed seven people.
- 1937 – Brazilian president Getúlio Vargas led a coup against his own constitutional government, establishing the dictatorial Estado Novo regime.
- 1945 – Indonesian National Revolution: Following the killing of Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby a few weeks earlier, British forces retaliated by attacking Surabaya.
- 1969 – The children's television series Sesame Street premiered in the United States.
- 1975 – SS Edmund Fitzgerald (pictured) sank in Lake Superior with the loss of 29 lives.
- 1995 – Writer and environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight others from the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People were executed by the Nigerian military government.
- 1778 – American Revolutionary War: British forces and their Iroquois allies attacked a fort and the village of Cherry Valley, New York, killing 14 soldiers and 30 civilians.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: French, Austrian and Russian units suffered heavy losses at the Battle of Dürenstein.
- 1960 – A coup attempt by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam against President Ngô Đình Diệm was crushed after he falsely promised reform, allowing loyalists to rescue him.
- 1975 – During a constitutional crisis, Governor-General John Kerr (pictured) dismissed Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's government and dissolved the Parliament of Australia for a double-dissolution election.
- 1912 – Eight months after perishing during the ill-fated Terra Nova Expedition, the bodies of Robert Falcon Scott (pictured) and his companions were discovered on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
- 1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the decisive engagement in a series of sea battles between Allied and Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal campaign in the Solomon Islands, began.
- 1945 – Sudirman was elected the first commander-in-chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces.
- 2014 – The European Space Agency lander Philae touched down on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, becoming the first spacecraft to land on a comet.
- 1914 – Zaian War: Zaian Berber tribesmen routed French forces in Morocco at the Battle of El Herri.
- 1940 – Walt Disney's Fantasia, the first commercial film shown with stereophonic sound, premiered at the Broadway Theatre in New York City.
- 1963 – A man wielding a dagger was subdued as he was about to attack Sanzō Nosaka, the chairman of the Japanese Communist Party.
- 1985 – Nevado del Ruiz (pictured) erupted, causing a volcanic mudslide that buried the town of Armero, Colombia, killing approximately 23,000 people.
- 1992 – The High Court of Australia ruled in Dietrich v The Queen that, although there is no absolute right to have publicly funded counsel, a judge should grant any request for an adjournment or stay in most circumstances in which an accused is unrepresented.
- 1941 – Second World War: After suffering torpedo damage the previous day, the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank as she was being towed to Gibraltar for repairs.
- 1992 – In poor conditions caused by Cyclone Forrest, Vietnam Airlines Flight 474 crashed near Nha Trang, killing 30 people.
- 1995 – As a result of budget conflicts between President Bill Clinton and the United States Congress led by Newt Gingrich, the federal government was forced to shut down non-essential services.
- 2003 – Astronomers Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz discovered the trans-Neptunian object Sedna (artist's impression pictured).
- 2010 – Red Bull Racing's Sebastian Vettel won the Drivers' Championship after winning the final race of the season, becoming the youngest Formula One champion.
- 655 – Penda of Mercia and Æthelhere of East Anglia were defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed in Yorkshire, England.
- 1760 – The chapel of the newly constructed Castellania in Valletta, Malta, was consecrated.
- 1864 – American Civil War: Union Army general William Tecumseh Sherman began his March to the Sea, inflicting significant damage to property and infrastructure using scorched-earth tactics on his way from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
- 1922 – Fountain of Time (detail pictured), in Chicago's Washington Park, was dedicated as a tribute to 100 years of peace between the United States and Great Britain following the Treaty of Ghent.
- 2012 – Xi Jinping replaced Hu Jintao as General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party, succeeding as the paramount leader of China.
- 1476 – With the help of Stephen III and Stephen Báthory, Vlad the Impaler ousted Basarab the Old and became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time.
- 1632 – King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was killed at the Battle of Lützen during the Thirty Years' War.
- 1885 – After a five-day trial following the North-West Rebellion, the Canadian Métis leader and "Father of Manitoba" Louis Riel was hanged for high treason.
- 1973 – U.S. president Richard Nixon signed an act authorizing the construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline to transport oil from the Beaufort Sea to the Gulf of Alaska.
- 1992 – In Suffolk, England, a local man found the largest hoard of Roman silver and gold in Britain (sample pictured), including the largest collection of 4th- and 5th-century gold and silver coins ever discovered within the former Roman Empire.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I (pictured) became Queen of England and of Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1592 – Sigismund III Vasa, who was already King of Poland, succeeded his father John III as King of Sweden.
- 1796 – French Revolutionary Wars: French forces defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Arcole in a manoeuvre to cut the latter's line of retreat.
- 1968 – NBC controversially cut away from an American football game between the Oakland Raiders and New York Jets to broadcast Heidi, causing viewers in the Eastern United States to miss the game's dramatic ending.
- 2009 – Administrators at the University of East Anglia's Climatic Research Unit discovered that their servers had been hacked and thousands of emails and files on climate change had been stolen.
- 1210 – Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III after Otto commanded him to annul the Concordat of Worms.
- 1865 – "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" was published, becoming the first great success of American author Mark Twain (pictured).
- 1956 – At the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1991 – Croatian War of Independence: The Yugoslav People's Army captured the Croatian city of Vukovar, ending an 87-day siege.
- 2014 – Two Palestinian men attacked the praying congregants of a synagogue in Jerusalem with axes, knives, and a gun, resulting in eight deaths, including the attackers themselves.
- 1620 – The Mayflower (depicted), which brought the Pilgrims from England to the New World, sighted Cape Cod.
- 1941 – World War II: The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney and the German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran destroyed each other in the Indian Ocean.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé scored his thousandth goal.
- 1991 – Mexican singer Luis Miguel released the album Romance, which led to a revival of interest in bolero music.
- 2004 – During an NBA game between the Indiana Pacers and the Detroit Pistons, a brawl between players spilled into the crowd when Ron Artest attacked a fan.
- 284 – Diocletian (bust pictured) became Roman emperor, eventually establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
- 1739 – War of Jenkins' Ear: A British naval force arrived at the settlement of Portobello in the Spanish Main, capturing it the next day.
- 1902 – While discussing how to promote the newspaper L'Auto, sports journalist Géo Lefèvre came up with the idea of holding a cycling race that later became known as the Tour de France.
- 1979 – A group of armed insurgents attacked and took over the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, declaring that one of their leaders was the Mahdi, the prophesied redeemer of Islam.
- 1991 – First Nagorno-Karabakh War: An Azerbaijani military helicopter carrying a peacekeeping mission team was shot down in Nagorno-Karabakh, disrupting ongoing peace talks.
- 1922 – Rebecca Latimer Felton became the first woman to serve in the United States Senate, albeit for only one day.
- 1945 – Manzanar, a camp in California for the internment of Japanese Americans during World War II, was closed.
- 1964 – The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge (pictured), connecting Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City, opened to traffic as the longest suspension bridge in the world at the time.
- 1970 – Vietnam War: American forces raided the North Vietnamese Sơn Tây prison camp in an attempt to rescue 61 American POWs who were thought to be held there.
- 1635 – Dutch colonial forces on Taiwan launched a three-month pacification campaign against the island's indigenous peoples.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard (pictured) was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of the Province of North Carolina.
- 1873 – The French steamship Ville du Havre collided with a Scottish iron clipper in the North Atlantic and sank with the loss of 226 lives.
- 1971 – In Britain's worst mountaineering tragedy, five teenage students and one of their leaders were found dead from exposure on the Cairngorm Plateau in the Scottish Highlands.
- 1733 – African slaves in the Danish West Indies began an insurrection in one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas.
- 1867 – The Manchester Martyrs were hanged in Manchester, England, for killing a police officer while helping two Irish nationalists escape from police custody.
- 1924 – The New York Times published evidence from Edwin Hubble (pictured) stating that the Andromeda Nebula, previously believed to be part of the Milky Way, is in fact another galaxy.
- 1976 – Jacques Mayol became the first person to freedive to a depth of 100 metres (330 ft).
- 2011 – Arab Spring: After months of protests in Yemen, President Ali Abdullah Saleh agreed to transfer power to Vice President Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi.
- 1859 – British naturalist Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species was first published, and sold out its initial print run on the first day.
- 1941 – The Holocaust: The Theresienstadt Ghetto was founded as a waystation to Nazi extermination camps and a "retirement settlement" for elderly and prominent Jews to mislead their communities about the Final Solution.
- 1971 – After collecting a ransom payout of $200,000, D. B. Cooper (depicted) parachuted out of the rear stairway of the airplane he had hijacked over the Pacific Northwest and disappeared.
- 2015 – A Russian Sukhoi Su-24 attack aircraft was shot down by a Turkish fighter jet after the former allegedly strayed into Turkish airspace and ignored warnings to change course.
- 1510 – Afonso de Albuquerque, the governor of Portuguese India, led an armada to conquer Goa.
- 1678 – Trunajaya rebellion: After a series of difficult marches, allied Mataram and Dutch troops successfully assaulted the rebel stronghold of Kediri in eastern Java.
- 1936 – Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing that, if the Soviet Union attacked one of them, they would consult each other on what measures to take to "safeguard their common interests".
- 1975 – Upon Suriname's independence from the Netherlands, Johan Ferrier (pictured) became its first president.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame (main building pictured) was founded by Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross as an all-male institution in the U.S. state of Indiana.
- 1852 – A massive earthquake struck the Dutch East Indies, creating a tsunami that washed away villages, ships and residents.
- 1983 – Six robbers broke into a Brink's-Mat warehouse at Heathrow Airport in London and stole £26 million in gold, diamonds and cash.
- 2011 – In a friendly-fire incident, a skirmish occurred between U.S.-led NATO forces and Pakistani security forces at two military checkposts along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border.
- 1095 – At the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade, declaring holy war against the Muslims who had occupied the Holy Land and were attacking the Eastern Roman Empire.
- 1703 – The great storm of 1703, one of the most severe storms to strike southern Great Britain, destroyed the first Eddystone Lighthouse off Plymouth.
- 1945 – A consortium of twenty-two U.S. charities founded CARE with the mission of delivering food aid to Europe in the aftermath of World War II.
- 2001 – Astronomers announced the detection of sodium in the atmosphere of the extrasolar planet HD 209458 b (artist's impression pictured), the first exoplanet atmosphere to be measured.
- 1470 – Đại Việt emperor Lê Thánh Tông launched a military expedition against Champa, beginning the Champa–Đại Việt War.
- 1660 – Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Christopher Wren and other leading scientists met at Gresham College in London to found a learned society, now known as the Royal Society.
- 1943 – World War II: U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt, British prime minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet premier Joseph Stalin (all three pictured) met at the Tehran Conference to discuss war strategy against the Axis powers.
- 1987 – South African Airways Flight 295 suffered a catastrophic in-flight fire and crashed into the Indian Ocean east of Mauritius, killing all 159 people on board.
- 903 – The Abbasid Caliphate captured the Qarmatian leadership at the Battle of Hama in Syria, opening the way for the reconquest of Tulunid Egypt.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British reinforcements brought an end to the Patriot attempt to capture Fort Cumberland in Nova Scotia.
- 1890 – The National Diet of Japan (pictured in session), a bicameral legislature modelled after both the German Reichstag and the British Westminster system, first met in Tokyo.
- 2007 – During their trial for the 2003 Oakwood mutiny, Philippine soldiers led by Senator Antonio Trillanes mutinied and seized a conference room in The Peninsula Manila in Makati.
- 1853 – Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, prompting France and the United Kingdom to enter the Crimean War.
- 1936 – English mathematician Alan Turing published the first details of the Turing machine (model pictured), an abstract device that can simulate the logic of any computer algorithm by manipulating symbols.
- 1954 – A meteorite crashed through a roof in Sylacauga, Alabama, and hit a sleeping woman in the first verified case of a human being injured by an extraterrestrial object.
- 2005 – John Sentamu was enthroned as Archbishop of York, becoming the first black archbishop in the Church of England.